An artist, poet, and playwright, Oskar Kokoschka (1886–1980) is known for his expressionistic portraits and landscapes. Throughout his life, Kokoschka was concerned with expressing human character and psychology through effects of color, formal distortion, and violent brushwork. Like Max Beckmann, he is considered a founding leader of Expressionism, but both artists maintained some independence from the movement; Kokoschka rejected the term as a description of his work and maintained that his practice adhered to traditional themes and values. He is most celebrated for his dark, emotionally turbulent figurative paintings, like The Bride of the Wind (1914), a meditation on his affair with Alma Mahler. He later moved to Prague to flee the Nazis after his work was condemned as “degenerate” and removed from public view.